1 So I returned, and considered all the oppressions that are done under the sun. And
behold the tears of the oppressed ones, and they had no comforter! And on the side of
those who oppressed them there was power, but they had no comforter.
2 Therefore I congratulated the dead who already have died, more than the living who
are still alive.
3 Yea, better than both is he who has never existed, who has not seen the evil work that
is done under the sun.
4 Again, I considered all labor, and every successful work, that for this a man is envied
by his neighbor. This also is vanity and striving of spirit.
5 The fool folds his hands together, and devours his own flesh.
6 Better is a hand filled with rest than two hands full with travail and striving of spirit.
7 Then I returned and saw vanity under the sun.
8 There is one alone, without a second; indeed, he has neither son nor brother; yet there
is no end to all his labor; and his eyes are not satisfied with riches; and he does not ask,
For whom do I labor and deprive my soul of good? This also is vanity; indeed, it is an
9 Two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their labor.
10 For if they fall, the one will lift up his companion; but woe to him who is alone when
he falls, for he does not have another to help him up.
11 Again, if two lie together, then they have warmth; but how can one be warm alone?
12 And if one overpowers him, two shall withstand him; and a threefold cord is not
13 A poor and wise youth is better than an old and foolish king, who will not be
admonished any more.
14 For he comes out of prison to reign; although in his kingdom he was poor.
15 I saw all the living who walk under the sun, with the second youth who stands in his
16 There is no end of all the people, of all who have been before them; they also who
come after shall not rejoice in him. Surely this also is vanity and striving of spirit.